Severe weather drives global insured catastrophe losses in first half of 2021

Swiss Re Institute estimates global insured catastrophe losses of $42 billion USD in H1 2021

  • Estimated insured losses from natural catastrophes at USD 40 billion are the second highest on record for a first half after 2011
  • Winter storm Uri caused an estimated USD 15 billion insured losses in the US, the highest ever recorded for this peril in the country
  • Winter storms, intense heatwaves and severe flooding around the globe continue to signal the growing risks from secondary perils, fueled by rapid urban development and climate change

Geneva, Switzerland (Aug. 12, 2021) – A deep winter freeze, hailstorms and wildfires contributed to natural catastrophe losses of USD 40 billion in the first half of 2021, according to Swiss Re Institute’s preliminary sigma estimates.[1] This is above the previous ten-year average of USD 33 billion and the second highest on record for a first half after 2011, when major earthquakes in Japan and New Zealand pushed the six-month total to USD 104 billion. Man-made disasters triggered another estimated USD 2 billion of insured losses in the first half this year, less than usual and likely reflecting remaining COVID-19 restrictions.

Martin Bertogg, Head of Cat Perils at Swiss Re, said: “The effects of climate change are manifesting in warmer temperatures, rising sea levels, more erratic rainfall patterns and greater weather extremes. Taken together with rapid urban development and accumulation of wealth in disaster-prone areas, secondary perils, such as winter storms, hail, floods or wildfires, lead to ever higher catastrophe losses. The experience so far in 2021 underscores the growing risks of these perils, exposing ever larger communities to extreme climate events. For example, winter storm Uri reached the loss magnitude that peak perils like hurricanes can wreak. The insurance industry needs to upscale its risk assessment capabilities for these lesser monitored perils to maintain and expand its contribution to financial resilience.“

Global economic losses from disaster events are estimated at USD 77 billion in the first half of 2021. This is below average for the past ten years (USD 108 billion). The economic loss figure is expected to rise as more losses are accounted for in the coming months. The first half of the year is also not representative of the full-year figures, because the third quarter historically is the most loss-prone in terms of natural catastrophes. Of the total estimated economic losses in the first half of 2021, USD 74 billion were caused by natural catastrophes, while man-made disasters triggered an additional USD 3 billion. Close to 4 500 people lost their lives or went missing in disaster events in the first half.

Severe weather events push up natural catastrophe losses

In February, a period of extreme cold combined with heavy snowfall and ice accumulation in the US – commonly referred to as winter storm Uri – triggered estimated insured losses of USD 15 billion, the highest ever recorded for this peril in the US and around 38% of all estimated insured losses from natural catastrophes in the first half of this year. In June, severe weather including thunderstorms, hail and tornadoes hit Europe, affecting homes and vehicles in Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Czech Republic and Switzerland. Insured losses from this convective storm activity are estimated at USD 4.5 billion.

End-of-June extreme heat shattered temperature records across western Canada and the northwestern US, with temperatures reaching more than 45°C (113°F) for consecutive days. The heat, coupled with severe drought conditions, led to wildfires that spread south to California. Going into the second half of the year, July saw severe flooding cause property destruction and loss of life in Europe and China. Floods in Germany and its neighbouring countries are expected to cause substantial insured losses, estimated in Germany alone at EUR 4.5 – 5.5 billion (USD 5.3 – 6.5 billion), according to the German Insurance Association. In China, severe flooding in Henan province resulted in estimated insured claims of CNY 11 billion (USD 1.7 billion), according to the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission. In August, extreme heat fueled wildfires in Turkey, Greece and Italy, which are expected to lead to further economic and insured losses.

Jérôme Jean Haegeli, Swiss Re’s Group Chief Economist, said: “Climate change is one of the biggest risks facing society and the global economy. The recent analysis from the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change confirms expectations of more extreme weather in the future and urgency to act to limit global warming. Working with the public sector, the re/insurance industry plays a key role in helping to strengthen communities’ resilience by steering development away from high-risk areas, making adaptation investments, maintaining insurability of assets and narrowing protection gaps.“

Notes to Editors

Total economic and insured losses in H1 2021[2] and H1 2020

H1 2021 H1 2020 Annual change H1 10-year average[3]
Economic losses: 77 114 -33% 108
Nat cat 74 108 -31% 102
Man-made 3 6 -56% 6
Insured losses: 42 41 4% 38
Nat cat 40 35 13% 33
Man-made 2 5 -59% 5

Note: Due to rounding, some totals may not correspond with the sum of the separate figures.

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Background on Swiss Re Institute’s Economics of Climate Change study: The economics of climate change | Swiss Re


1. These sigma catastrophe loss estimates are for property damage and exclude COVID-19 related claims.

2. H1 2021 losses are Swiss Re Institute estimates

3. H1 10-yr average refers to the average first-half losses between 2011 and 2020

About Swiss Re

The Swiss Re Group is one of the world’s leading providers of reinsurance, insurance and other forms of insurance-based risk transfer, working to make the world more resilient. It anticipates and manages risk – from natural catastrophes to climate change, from ageing populations to cyber crime. The aim of the Swiss Re Group is to enable society to thrive and progress, creating new opportunities and solutions for its clients. Headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, where it was founded in 1863, the Swiss Re Group operates through a network of around 80 offices globally. For more information, please visit

SOURCE: Swiss Re

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